IO5 – Manual for gamification methods in PA

The researchers tasked with the comprising of this manual will look into the motivation of young people to be physically active and to engage in different sports activities. The manual will be built on the principle of using gamification to encourage physical and sport activity. It will have 5 chapters as follows:


Young people engaged in sports activities need different levels of support depending on their competence. The educational concept of scaffolding is the application of tailored support to move the young person learning a particular sport from their current level of learning to the next.

2. Self-determination Theory:

Young people are motivated by psychological needs of competence, autonomy, and social relatedness through both external and internal factors.Components of the motivational theory of self-determination explain how gamification elements keep learners engaged. The theory of self-determination has 3 core elements:

a. Competence – Young people are engaged in sports activities when they feel competent.

b. Autonomy – Young people are engaged when they feel in control.

c. Psychological Relatedness – Young people are engaged when they feel connected.

3. Intrinsic And Extrinsic Motivation:

The motivational theory of self-determination makes a distinction between intrinsic (internal) and extrinsic (external) factors. Gamification applies both intrinsic and extrinsic motivators, however, critics suggest that it relies too heavily on extrinsic factors. The trick is to deploy both into learning design, as this increases motivation for a larger range of learners.

4. Distributed Content Delivery:

Young people will have better sports or physical activity results, when they are spaced out over time. This reduces learner fatigue and leads to better engagement and positive reactions.

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